The cultivation of the vineyard in the Middle Ages, from the 12th century on, developed considerably, mainly due to the action of several religious orders, with particular emphasis on Alcobaça, where the followers of S. Bernardo settled in the monastery ordered to erect by the Order of Cister.
The main objective at the time was the elaboration of wine for the celebration of the masses, and the wines of the so-called Extremadura reached great consumption and prestige, becoming one of the products of greater weight in the economic activity of the region.
Identified as one of the largest wine regions in the country in terms of area of vineyard and wine production, the area of production of the Geographical Indication Lisbon covers all the counties of the Atlantic strip north of the Tagus estuary, confining the North with the Beira and to the East with Ribatejo.
The relief is not very high, except to the south, where some strata of basalt and granite appear, and the region rests almost entirely on secondary formations of clay-limestone and clay-sand; the climate is temperate, without large thermal amplitudes, with an annual rainfall of 600-700 mm.
In the South zone of the region are the wine-growing zones of three Denominations of Origin known for their tradition and prestige: they are, going from East to West, Bucelas, Carcavelos and Colares.
In the central part of the region, we find the widest vineyards in this region, located on the gentle slopes of the hills, where in addition to the Wine with Geographical Indication Lisbon were recognized for their high quality characteristics Denominations of Origin “Alenquer”, “Arruda “,” Torres Vedras “and” Óbidos “.
Next to the sea is a wine-producing area particularly dedicated to the production of quality spirits and that deserved the recognition of the Denomination of Origin “Lourinhã”.
In the northern zone, there is a vast region of vineyards stretching from the hillsides of the Candeeiros mountains and from Aires to the sea. There, the wines with the right to the Denomination of Origin “Encostas d’Aire” are produced in the sub-regions of this DO, “Alcobaça” and “Ourém”.
Also note the Lisbon Geographical Indication for red, white and rosé wines produced throughout the region; in addition to the “Light Wine” with very own characteristics that make it very appreciated, especially in hot weather, it is also important to mention sparkling wines with IG Lisboa.